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Wheel of Terpenes: Effect Citations

  1. When using specific terpenes for potential benefits, please exercise precaution and consult with a health practitioner first.
  2. Lewis MA, Russo EB, Smith KM. Pharmacological Foundations of Cannabis Chemovars. Planta Med. 2018 Mar;84(4):225-233. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-122240. Epub 2017 Nov 21. PMID: 29161743.
  3. Aydin E, Türkez H, Taşdemir S. Anticancer and antioxidant properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2013 Sep;64(3):415-24. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2365. PMID: 24084350.
  4. Grassmann J, Hippeli S, Spitzenberger R, Elstner EF. The monoterpene terpinolene from the oil of Pinus mugo L. in concert with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene effectively prevents oxidation of LDL. Phytomedicine. 2005 Jun;12(6-7):416-23. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2003.10.005. PMID: 16008117.
  5. Navia-Giné WG, Yuan JS, Mauromoustakos A, Murphy JB, Chen F, Korth KL. Medicago truncatula (E)-beta-ocimene synthase is induced by insect herbivory with corresponding increases in emission of volatile ocimene. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009 May;47(5):416-25. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.01.008. Epub 2009 Feb 8. PMID: 19249223.
  6. Kim MJ, Yang KW, Kim SS, Park SM, Park KJ, Kim KS, Choi YH, Cho KK, Hyun CG. Chemical composition and anti-inflammation activity of essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower. Nat Prod Commun. 2014 May;9(5):727-30. PMID: 25026734.
  7. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1344-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x. PMID: 21749363; PMCID: PMC3165946.
  8. Komiya M, Takeuchi T, Harada E. Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006 Sep 25;172(2):240-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2006.05.006. Epub 2006 Jun 15. PMID: 16780969.
  9. Perry NS, Houghton PJ, Theobald A, Jenner P, Perry EK. In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;52(7):895-902. doi: 10.1211/0022357001774598. Erratum in: J Pharm Pharmacol 2000 Dec;52(12):203. PMID: 10933142.
  10. Gil ML, Jimenez J, Ocete MA, Zarzuelo A, Cabo MM. Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck. Pharmazie. 1989 Apr;44(4):284-7. PMID: 2772005.
  11. Wang, G., Tang, W., Bidigare, R.R. (2005). Terpenoids As Therapeutic Drugs and Pharmaceutical Agents. In: Zhang, L., Demain, A.L. (eds) Natural Products. Humana Press.
  12. Rohr AC, Wilkins CK, Clausen PA, Hammer M, Nielsen GD, Wolkoff P, Spengler JD. Upper airway and pulmonary effects of oxidation products of (+)-alpha-pinene, d-limonene, and isoprene in BALB/c mice. Inhal Toxicol. 2002 Jul;14(7):663-84. doi: 10.1080/08958370290084575. PMID: 12122569.
  13. Rivas da Silva AC, Lopes PM, Barros de Azevedo MM, Costa DC, Alviano CS, Alviano DS. Biological activities of α-pinene and β-pinene enantiomers. Molecules. 2012 May 25;17(6):6305-16. doi: 10.3390/molecules17066305. PMID: 22634841; PMCID: PMC6268778.
  14. Zhao Y, Chen R, Wang Y, Yang Y. α-Pinene Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Growth in a Mouse Xenograft Model. Chemotherapy. 2018;63(1):1-7. doi: 10.1159/000479863. Epub 2017 Oct 26. PMID: 29069647.
  15. Salehi B, Upadhyay S, Erdogan Orhan I, Kumar Jugran A, L D Jayaweera S, A Dias D, Sharopov F, Taheri Y, Martins N, Baghalpour N, Cho WC, Sharifi-Rad J. Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature. Biomolecules. 2019 Nov 14;9(11):738. doi: 10.3390/biom9110738. PMID: 31739596; PMCID: PMC6920849.
  16. Fernandes ES, Passos GF, Medeiros R, da Cunha FM, Ferreira J, Campos MM, Pianowski LF, Calixto JB. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 27;569(3):228-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.04.059. Epub 2007 May 22. PMID: 17559833.
  17. Jang HI, Rhee KJ, Eom YB. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of α-humulene against Bacteroides fragilis. Can J Microbiol. 2020 Jun;66(6):389-399. doi: 10.1139/cjm-2020-0004. Epub 2020 Feb 19. PMID: 32073898.
  18. J.A. Hartsel, J. Eades, B. Hickory, A. Makriyannis. Cannabis sativa and Hemp. Nutraceuticals (2016), pp. 735-754, ISBN 9780128021477,
  19. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S, Racz I, Chen JZ, Xie XQ, Altmann KH, Karsak M, Zimmer A. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 1;105(26):9099-104. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0803601105. Epub 2008 Jun 23. PMID: 18574142; PMCID: PMC2449371.
  20. Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Mazzanti G, Bartolini A. Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene. Farmaco. 2001 May-Jul;56(5-7):387-9. doi: 10.1016/s0014-827x(01)01092-8. PMID: 11482764.
  21. Klauke AL, Racz I, Pradier B, Markert A, Zimmer AM, Gertsch J, Zimmer A. The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Apr;24(4):608-20. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.10.008. Epub 2013 Oct 22. PMID: 24210682.
  22. Deng L, Shi AM, Wang Q. Sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects and the mechanism of action of aqueous extracts of peanut stems and leaves in mice. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Oct;98(13):4885-4894. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.9020. Epub 2018 May 17. PMID: 29572847.
  23. Kamatou, Guy Paulin & Viljoen, Alvaro. (2008). Linalool – a Review of a Biologically Active Compound of Commercial Importance. Natural Product Communications. 3. 1183-1192. 10.1177/1934578X0800300727.
  24. Surendran S, Qassadi F, Surendran G, Lilley D, Heinrich M. Myrcene-What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent? Front Nutr. 2021 Jul 19;8:699666. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.699666. PMID: 34350208; PMCID: PMC8326332.